This study is focused on analyzing all 31 poems by Santiago Villafania (1971) in his book, Balikas na Caboloan. The aim of this study is to reveal how his use of his native language and cultural heritage has transformed Pangasinan from a tangible, physical place to a state of ideology, which is Caboloan.
Using Stephen Greenblatt’s theory of New Historicism, the significance of the texts were analyzed by first, describing the values, mores and the researcher’s knowledge of the history of Pangasinan, particularly at the time indicated in the texts; second, by reflecting on how Villafania’s personal historical circumstances affected or influenced the text; and third, by identifying and appreciating the social mores that were communicated within the text.
The study shows that Villafania’s poetry was heavily influenced by his personal account or view of his environment, specifically, the place where he grew up in, Pangasinan. The practices, beliefs and ultimately, the way of life insinuated within the text are reminiscent of an older time, thus transforming Pangasinan, as we know it today, back to Caboloan.